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Corona virus disease 2019

Respiratory distress and infectious disease caused by SARS corona virus 2
 Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the highly lethal respiratory syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).  The disease has spread worldwide since 2019 and soon took the form of a global epidemic.  Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath.  Muscle aches, salivation and sore throat are some of the rare symptoms.  In most cases, fewer symptoms are seen, in some cases the patient develops pneumonia and multiple organ dysfunction.  The mortality rate in diagnosed cases is between 1% and 5%, but may vary depending on age and other health conditions.
 The infection is transmitted from person to person through inhalation, usually by coughing and sneezing.  Symptoms usually begin to appear between two and fourteen days, on average five days.  The standard method of diagnosis is through a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab.  The infection can also be diagnosed by a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a CT scan of the chest showing signs of pneumonia.
Proposed tips to prevent the disease include washing hands, keeping distance from other people and not touching anyone's face.  The use of masks is better for people suspected of having the virus and their carers, not for the public.  There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for Covid-19.  Treatment of the symptoms and experimental assessments are included to deal with the disease.
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019-2020 corona outbreak an international public health emergency (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020 and a global epidemic on March 11, 2020.  Evidence of local transmission of the disease has been found in all 6 regions of the World Health Organization.

Signs and symptoms

People infected with the virus do not show permanent symptoms or epidemic flu-like symptoms (including fever, cough and difficulty breathing).  Hand and upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose or sore throat are rare.  Among the victims, the disease progresses to pneumonia, multiple organ failure and death.
According to the World Health Organization, the incubation period is two to fourteen days, with an estimated evolutionary period of five to six days between the onset of infection and the onset of symptoms.  For mild cases, the average time from onset to clinical healing is about 2 weeks, and for patients with a fatal or serious illness it is 3 to 6 weeks.  Preliminary data show that the period from onset to the development of a fatal disease, including hypoxia, is 1 week.  In patients who die, the time from the onset of symptoms to the outcome is 2 to 8 weeks.  A study in China found that CT scans showed 56% ground-glass opacities, but 18% had no radio logical results.  5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 2.3% needed mechanical ventilation support and 1.4% died.  Bilateral and peripheral ground glass opacity are the most typical CT results.
Children have milder symptoms than adults.


The disease is caused by the highly lethal respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), formerly known as the 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV).  It is spread through breathing in people, especially through coughing and sneezing.
COVID-19 mainly affects lung organs because the virus gains access to host cells through the enzyme ACE2, an enzyme abundant in lung type II alveolar cells.  The virus uses a special layer of glycogen protein, called "aspike", to attach to ACE2 and enter the host cell.  The density of ACE2 in each tissue depends on the severity of the disease in that tissue, and some have suggested that reducing ACE2 activity may be protective, while another theory is that using angiotensin II receptor blocker drugs to increase ACE2  Increasing can also be protective and such speculations need to be tested.  As the alveolar disease progresses, the respiratory system may fail and death may occur.  ACE2 can also pave the way for the virus to attack the heart, which can lead to acute cardiac injury.  People who already have cardiovascular conditions are at higher risk.
One idea about the virus is that it originated in an animal.  It was transmitted to most humans in November or December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the infection began to spread from humans to other humans by early January 2020.  On March 14, 2020, the South China Morning Post reported that a 55-year-old man from Hubei Province was first diagnosed with the disease on November 17, 2019.  As of March 14, 2020, there were 67,790 victims and 3,075 deaths in Hubei Province.  4.54% Case Fatality Rate (CFR).


The World Health Organization has published some testing protocols for diagnosing the disease.  The standard method of testing is the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).  Tests are also possible with respiratory samples using a nasopharyngeal swab or saliva sample.  Results are usually available in a few hours to two days.  Blood tests can also be done, but this requires two blood samples in two weeks, and good results are rare.  Chinese scientists were able to limit the strain of the corona virus and published a genetic sequence so that laboratories around the world could independently develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to diagnose infection with the virus.
As of February 26, 2020, there were no antibody tests or point-of-care tests, but efforts are underway to prepare them.Wuhan University's Zhongnan Hospital has issued diagnostic guidelines, which suggest ways to detect infections based on medical characteristics and risk of infectious diseases.  These included people who had at least two of the following symptoms, in addition to being known or related to the person: fever, imaging features of pneumonia, a decrease in the number of white blood cells, or  Decreased lymph cell count.  A study published by a team at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan on February 26, 2020, found that a CT scan of the chest for KVID-19 was more sensitive (98%) than a polymerase chain reaction (71%).  ) Keeps.  False negative results can come from the failure of the PCR kit, or from one of the sample problems or from those who performed the test.  False positive results are rare.


No vaccine against SARS-Covey-2 is expected to be developed by 2021 or soon. A key part of controlling the global epidemic of CoV 19 is to reduce the epidemic curve, called the epidemic curve.  Measures to reduce the rate of infections can help.  Reducing the rate of infection helps reduce the risks to health facilities, better treat existing cases, and give them more time to prepare vaccines and treatments.
As a precautionary measure to reduce the chances of infection spreading in places, stay at home, give up travel and public activities, wash hands with soap, usually with warm water for at least twenty seconds, without washing hands, eyes, nose.  And refrain from touching the mouth.  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends covering the mouth and nose with tissue when coughing or sneezing, or coughing or sneezing with an elbow if there is no tissue.  Also, wash your hands thoroughly after coughing or sneezing.  By keeping a distance from the people, the spread of the disease can be reduced from person to person, schools and workplaces should be closed, travel should be banned and crowds should be abandoned.
According to the World Health Organization, masks are only recommended for those who cough or sneeze or are suspected.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States recommends that infected people stay indoors and leave for treatment only.  Call before seeing a health care provider, wear a face mask when you encounter a suspected infection site or person, cover with tissue paper when coughing and sneezing, wash your hands daily with soap and water, and  Avoid giving private things to family members.  The CDC also recommends washing your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds after going to the toilet or if your hands feel dirty, before eating and after cleaning your nose, coughing or sneezing.  Also, when water or soap is not available at the moment, use an alcohol-based hand disinfectant (hand sanitizer) that contains 60% alcohol.  For remote areas where antiseptics are not readily available, the World Health Organization has recommended two home remedies.  Both prescriptions increase the antiseptic activity of ethanol or isopropyl alcohols to reduce the intensity of oxides on hydrogen, while glycerol acts as a humectant.  Is instructed to refrain from touching the eyes, nose or mouth.  Also avoid going to public places.
Covid-19 rescue


Treatment through symptomatic treatment of people with disease, treatment with oxygen and treatment of affected vital organs can lead to recovery.  The World Health Organization and the Chinese National Health Commission have published recommendations for caring for people affected by COVID19 and hospitalized.  Steroids such as methylprednisolone are not recommended unless the disease is complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).  Intensivists and pulmonologists in the United States have offered free treatment with the Internet Book of Critical Care (IBCC).  The CDC recommends that people who are at risk of contracting the virus should wear a simple mask.


The World Health Organization (WHO) has not recommended treating the symptoms of Covid 19 with ibuprofen or related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.  However, the use of paracetamol in initial treatment is recommended.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to treat respiratory failure, but its benefits are still being considered.
The Cuban drug Hebron (interferon alpha 2b) has been found to be very useful in the treatment of coronavirus patients.  But this is not a vaccine.
 Inexpensive malaria drugs chloroquine and noshader (ammonium chloride) have been found to be useful in preventing coronavirus or early disease.

Safety Equipment

Treatment of people infected with the virus involves caution when applying healing measures, especially using an intubation or a hand-held respiratory device that can produce aerosols.

 The CDC outlines specific personal protective equipment and the layout in which health care providers must adorn it before visiting a person affected by Code 19, 1) medical clothing, 2)  Masks and respirators, 3) Medical glasses or face shields.

Mechanical Ventilation

Most cases of code 19 victims are not severe in that they require mechanical ventilation (artificial respiration), but may be needed in a few percent of cases.  It is more common in older people (older than 60 and usually older than 80).  Hospitals in many developed countries have insufficient beds per capita, which limits the scope of the healthcare system to handle the sudden increase in the number of patients admitted to the hospital for code 19.  A study in China found that 5% were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% needed mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% died.

Experimental treatment

The World Health Organization has not approved any medicine to treat the disease, but some have been recommended by various national medical authorities.  Research into possible treatments began in January 2020, and several antiviral drugs are in the clinical phase.  Although new drugs may take until 2021 to develop, most of the drugs tested have already been approved for other uses, or are already undergoing advanced testing.  Antiviral drugs can be tried in people with severe illness.  The WHO recommends that volunteers participate in possible treatment effectiveness and safety measures.

Information Technology

In February 2020, China released a mobile app to combat the spread of the disease.  Users are asked to enter their name and identification number.  Application monitoring is stable in detecting close contact using data and there is a potential risk of infection due to close contact.  Each user of this app can also check the status of three other users.  If the app detects a potential threat, it not only suggests quarantine itself, but also notifies local health officials.

 Big data analytics on cell phone data, facial recognition technology, mobile phone tracking, and artificial intelligence are used to track infected patients and the people they have visited in South Korea.  , Taiwan and Singapore.  In March 2020, the Israeli government enabled security agencies to track the cell phone data of people suspected of having the corona virus.  The move was made to enforce quarantine and protect those who may have been in contact with affected citizens.  Similarly, in March 2020, Deutsche Telekom provided private mobile data to the federal government agency, the Robert Koch Institute, to prevent and research the spread of the virus.  Russia has developed facial recognition technology to track quarantine escapees.  "40% of people are gnashing their teeth everywhere," said Giulio Galera, Italy's local health commissioner, as he was told by mobile phone operators.

Psychological support

Affected people may experience stress due to medical imprisonment, travel restrictions, treatment disadvantages or fear of infection.  To address these concerns, the Chinese National Health Commission presented a national plan on January 27, 2020 for the treatment of mental illness.

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